Library

Citations

"Why must I cite?" you ask!

What is it? A citation identifies for your readers the original source from which you plucked an idea, image, or other information that now resides in your ownresearch paper, web site, or other work. You must cite the following:

  • A direct quote taken verbatim from another source
  • Any source you paraphrase, summarize, or from which you obtained ideas
  • Ideas or facts that are not common knowledge

A basic citation includes the author(s), title, publication date, page numbers, and other "bibliographic" elements arranged in a particular order.

Why do it?

  • Give yourself some credit. When you cite, you show evidence of your own research and hard work.
  • Give credit to others (and avoid plagiarism).When you incorporate ideas and information from other authors--whether through direct quotes or paraphrasing--be fair by acknowledging their work.
  • Become part of the chain of scholarship. Contribute to your readers' own research process by giving themthe opportunity to follow up on your source material.

In May 2016, the MLA updated to the 8thedition. Examples here are based on theMLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th edition. Please, refer to the MLA Style Center for additional examples.

For more help on formatting your paper, refer to this section of the MLA Style Center.

If you wish to make copies of the 8th edition handout to distribute, it's alsoavailable here to print. Or, try this MLA 8 guide from the SCC Writing Center.

MLA 8th Edition: Works Cited

Book with One Author

Example:

Landes, David S. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. W.W. Norton, 1998.

Template:

Author. Title of the Book. Publisher, Date.


Scholarly Article from a Library Database

MLA now recommends using a digital object identifier (DOI) to cite online journal articles. This commonly appears on the front page of journal articles near the abstract.

Example:
Barra, Monica P. "Southern Waters: The Limits to Abundance." Journal of Cultural Geography,
vol. 32, no. 3, 2015, pp. 387-389. Academic OneFile,
doi:10.1080/08873631.2015.1069500.

Template:

Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Scholarly Journal, vol. #, issue #, year of publication, pages.
Name of Database, doi #.

Web Page No Author

“What is Domestic Violence?” NCADV National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, www.ncadv.org/need-help/what-is-domestic-violence.

“What I Need to Know About Gestational Diabetes.” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Health, Sept. 2014, www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/gestational-diabetes/Pages/index.aspx.

Template:

“Title of Web Page.” Sponsoring Organization, Publisher (If Different from Sponsoring Organization), date of publication, URL.


Online Video

“Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Scientific Studies.” YouTube, uploaded by Last Week
Tonight, 8 May 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Rnq1NpHdmw.

Template:

“Title of Video.” YouTube (or Vimeo or other video service), uploaded by ___, date of upload,
URL.


MLA 8th Edition: In-Text Citation

You create an in-text or parenthetical citation in one of two ways: Use a signal phrase with either the author (or title if no author) which corresponds to that specific entry in your works cited list, and include the page number in parentheses after the quotation; or place the author (or title, if no author) and page number (if there is one) in parentheses immediately after the quotation.

Example A: Author name included in signal phrase

Noam Chomsky explains that governments often use propaganda and media control because “you don’t allow the bewildered herd to become participants in action. They’ll just cause trouble” (18).

Example B: Author or Title in Parentheses

The rationale behind governments’ use of propaganda and media control is “you don’t allow the bewildered herd to become participants in action. They’ll just cause trouble” (Chomsky 18).

Example C: Web Page Title - No Author or Page Number

SPARC advocates for open access because, “The more people that can access and build upon the latest research, the more valuable that research becomes and the more likely we are to benefit as a society. More eyes make for smaller problems” (“Open Access”).

Example D: Online Video: Abbreviated Title

John Oliver challenges Edward Snowden’s comment that he is not at fault for any security breaches caused by his release of secret NSA documents, “You are giving documents with information you know could be harmful, which could get out there” (“Last Week Tonight” 00:21:07-21:15).

APA Online Sources >>

Examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, and assistance provided by APA editorial staff. When available, APA rule numbers are referenced.


General Guidelines



Research Database Sources



Internet Sources



Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)


A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique number assigned to some journal articles and books available electronically. Magazine and newspaper articles are not assigned DOIs. APA requires citations for journals and books to include a DOI, if it is available. Find the DOI on the article or look up the DOI with the author name and article title at:
http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/


Research Database Sources


Many articles in research databases are identical to their print version, so it is not necessary to provide database information. However, if an article can only be found in a database, then include the database URL.


Journal article


List up to seven authors. For more than seven authors, list the first six, then use an ellipsis (...) and the last author.

Always include the volume number. Include the issue number only if every issue begins on page 1.

Example

Frank, T. H. (1995). The interpretation of limits: Doctors and novelists in the fiction of Philip Roth. Journal of Popular Culture, 8(4), 67-80.

Pfeffer, M. A., Burdmann, E. A., Chen, C. Y., Cooper, M. E., de Zeeuw, D., Eckardt, K. U., … Toto, R. (2009). A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 361, 2019-2032. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0907845

Smeaton, G. L., & Josiam, B. M. (1998). College students' binge drinking at beach-front destinations during spring break. Journal of American College Health, 46, 247-251. doi:10.1080/07448489809596000

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxx (if available)

APA Manual 7.01 #1-5 (pp. 198-199)

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Magazine article


Examples

Magnets that move moods: New treatment for depression. (2002, June 24). Newsweek, 139(25), 57.

Padget, T., & Desvarieux, J. (2010, March 8). Hope for Haiti’s kids. Time, 175(9), 36.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number), page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #8 (pp. 200)

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Newspaper article or newswire


Examples

Glauber, B. (1998, February 14). American college students aren't in a class by themselves on drinking. The Dallas Morning News, p. C11.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Name of Newspaper, page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #11 (pp. 200-201)

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Encyclopedia article


Examples

Nordenson, N. & Odle, T. (2006). Blood sugar tests. In Gale encyclopedia of medicine. (3rd ed., Vol. 1). Retrieved from www.gale.cengage.com/gvrl

Zoologist. (2008). In A-z of careers & jobs. (15th ed.). Retrieved from www.gale.cengage.com/gvrl

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Name of encyclopedia. (Edition number, Volume number). Retrieved from database URL

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Dictionary definition


Example

Abate, F. (1999). Renaissance. In The Oxford American dictionary of current English. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from www.oxfordreference.com/

Parts of citation

Name of Editor. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Name of dictionary. (Edition number, Volume number). Retrieved from database URL

APA Manual 7.02 #27,29 (pp. 204, 205)

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E-book


Example

Papadopoulos, A., & La Fontaine, J. (2000). Elder abuse: Therapeutic perspectives in practice. Retrieved from http://netlibrary.com/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of book. Retrieved from database URL

APA Manual 7.02 #19 (p. 203)

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Article or chapter in an edited book


Example

Leeper, B. (2006). Cardiovascular system. In M. Chulay & S.M. Burns (Eds.). AACN essentials of critical care nursing. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com/

Mallory, E. (1997). Alcohol abuse is a serious problem among college students. In P. A. Winters (Ed.), Current controversies: Teen addiction. Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/OpposingViewpoints/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Name of editor, Title of book. Retrieved from database URL.

APA Manual 7.02 #24 (p. 204)

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Streaming Video


Example

Wells, J. (Producer), & Smith, K. (Director), (2013). Native silence [Video file]. Retrieved from http://search.alexanderstreet.com.ezproxy.pvc.maricopa.edu/vast/view/work/2490210.

Parts of citation

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of streaming video [Video file]. Retrieved from database URL.

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Chart


APA editorial staff recommend citing the article in which the chart appears, without mentioning the chart specifically in the references list. However, mention the chart in the in-text documentation within your paper.

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Image


Example

Garzon, G. (1651-1662). Still life with a dish of fava beans and a carnation [Painting]. Retrieved from Artstor

Map of northern Alaska showing the National Petroleum Reserve. [Map]. (2007). Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Parts of citation

Creator. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work]. Retrieved from Database name

(If no author) Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image created). Retrieved from Database name

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209, 210) and APA Style Blog

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Internet Sources

General Guidelines


When possible your citation should include:

  • author
  • date of publication or update (use n.d. if not available)
  • web page or document title
  • website URL

TIP: When a URL is longer than one line, make a break after a slash or before a period. When there is no author, begin a reference with the title of the webpage.

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Page or document from a website


TIP: When no date is available, use (n. d.)

Example

Hopson, K. (2007, January 4). Mott Children's Hospital ranked top children's hospital in state by Child Magazine. University of Michigan Health System. Retrieved from http://www.med.umich.edu/opm/newspage/ 2007/childmag.aspx

Kane, E. (1999). Dendroica kirtlandii. Retrieved from http:// animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Publication date) Title of the page. Website title. Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.01 #8,11 (p. 200) 7.11 (p. 215)

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Government publication


Examples

United States. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (2002). Creative partnerships: Supporting youth, building communities. (Publication No. J36.2:IN6/P25). Retrieved from http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS24105

United States. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002, April 9). The NHSDA report: Binge drinking among underage persons. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/AlcBinge/AlcBinge.cfm

Parts of citation

Country. Sponsoring agency. (Date of publication). Publication title. (Publication Number). Retrieved from Publication URL

APA Manual 7.03 #31 (p. 205)

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Journal article


Example

Gugajew, S. (2008). A method to the creative madness. Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 7, 12-18. Retrieved from http://jimc.medill.northwestern.edu/ JIMCWebsite/site.htm

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxx (if not available, include journal URL).

APA Manual 7.01 #8 (p. 200)

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Magazine article


Example

Gleach, F. W. (2006, November). The ritual world of Pocahontas. Natural History. Retrieved from http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/1106/1106_feature.aspx

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Magazine Website, volume number (issue number). Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.01 #8 (p. 200)

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Encyclopedia article


If the entry has no author listed, place the title in author position.

Examples

Righelato, P. (2006, October 1). Daisy Miller. In The literary encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.litencyc.com/php/ftsearch.php

Mickey Mouse. (2006, November 26). In Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mickey_Mouse

Parts of citation

Author of article. (Publication date). Title of article. In Title of encyclopedia. Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.02 #29 (p. 205)

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Newspaper article or newswire


Example

Carr, C. (2006, November 19). Computer support technicians who play well with others. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

Maxell, C. (2007, June 11). Community college. The State News. Retrieved from http://www.statenews.com/ article.phtml?pk=41319

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper Website. Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.01 #11 (p. 200)

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E-mail


Personal communications such as email are not cited in the references list, only in text.

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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Discussion list


Personal communications such as discussion groups are not cited in the references list, only in text.

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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Blog


Example

Farkas, M. (2006, November 1). Firefox 2 is my new best friend. Information wants to be free. Retrieved from http://meredith.wolfwater.com/wordpress/index.php

Parts of citation

Author of blog entry. (Date of blog entry). Title of blog entry. Title of blog. Retrieved from Blog URL

APA Manual 7.11 #76 (p. 215)

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Radio program


Example

Keillor, G. (Host). (2006, November 18). A prairie home companion. [Radio broadcast]. Washington, DC: National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://prairiehome.publicradio.org/programs/ 2006/11/18/index.shtml

Parts of citation

Name of author, host or primary producer. (Role). (Date of broadcast). Name of radio program. [Radio broadcast]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of Distributor. Retrieved from Website URL

APA Manual 7.07 #89 (p. 279)

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Sound recording


Example

Blakey, A. (1964). The Egyptian. Indestructible. Blue Note. [Sound recording]. Retrieved from http://bluenote.com/detail.asp?SelectionID=10257

Parts of citation

Name of composer or performer. (Recording release date). Title of individual work. Title of recording from which work comes. [Sound recording]. Retrieved from Recording URL

APA Manual 7.07 #50, 52 (p. 210)

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Interview


Example

Bateman, C. (2003, May). A conversation with Margaret Atwood. Bold Type. Retrieved from http://www.randomhouse.com/boldtype/0503/atwood/interview.aspx

Parts of citation

Name of interviewer. (Interview date). Title of interview. Title of website. Retrieved from Interview URL

APA Manual 7.01 #8, 11 (p. 200)

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Image


Many times images on the web are posted with a username. In these cases, the username is the creator.

Example

Blake, W. (1794). Urizen as the Creator of the Material World. [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/accounts.html#obj21

Timetrax23. (2007). Library books [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/
timetrax/376152628/

Parts of citation

Creator. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work]. Retrieved from URL

(If no author) Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved from URL

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210) and APA Style Blog

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A Tweet


Example


Barack Obama. (2009a, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

Parts of citation


Twitter handle. (Tweet date) . Tweet text [Twitter post]. Retrieved from Tweet_URL

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YouTube Video


Example


Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

Parts of citation


Name of author. [Screen name]. (Date of posting). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

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Used with permission: Lansing Community College Library

APA In-Text Citation >>

Examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, and assistance provided by APA editorial staff. When available, APA rule numbers are referenced.


Basic format (Author-Date Style)


In addition to having a references list at the end of your paper, you must give credit to sources that you use within your paper. Usually the author's last name and publication date are enough for the reader to identify the complete reference in the references list. See the examples below for variations of this general rule.


Author's name in text


If you cite the author's name in your paper, cite only the publication year in parentheses after the author's name.

Example

In Silent Spring, Carsen (1962) made an intelligent and passionate case for the immediate cessation of careless and pervasive pesticide use.

References

Carsen, R. (1962). Silent spring. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett.

APA Manual 6.11 (p. 174)

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Author's name in reference


If you do not cite the author's name in your paper, then include both the author's last name and the publication year in parentheses at the end of the sentence separated by a comma.

Example

Silent Spring was one of the first books to discuss dangers of pesticide use (Carsen, 1962).

References

Carsen, R. (1962). Silent spring. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett.

APA Manual 6.11 (p. 174)

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Multiple authors


Two authors

Cite both authors' last names and the publication date every time you refer to the work in your paper. In parentheses, use an ampersand (&) to separate the authors' names.

Example

They believe that a key aspect of the growth of dance on the American cultural scene has been the expansion of dance education in varied forms (Kraus & Hilsendager, 1981).

References

Kraus, R. G., & Hilsendager, S. C. (1981). History of the dance in art and education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Three, four, or five authors

Cite all the authors' last names and the publication date the first time you refer to the work. If you refer the work again, cite the first author's last name followed by et al.

Example

Oliver, Chiras, and Reganold (2004) offer sustainable solutions to global resource and environmental problems.

Oliver et al. argue that...

References

Oliver, O. S., Chiras, D. D., & Reganold, J. P. (2004). Natural resource conservation (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon & Schuster.

Six or more authors

Cite the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the publication date the first time you refer to a work and in each new paragraph. If you cite the work again in the same paragraph, do not include the year of publication.

Examples

Knight et al. (2002) found that college students have been exposed to alcohol before attending college.

In the research study, Knight et al. focused on interviewing undergraduate students.

References

Knight, J. R., Wechsler, H., Kou, M., Seibering, M., Weitzman, E. R., & Schuckit, M. A. (2002). Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S. college students Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(3), 263-271.

APA Manual 6.12 (p. 175)

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No author listed (cite by title)


When there is no author listed for a work, include the first few words of the title followed by the publication year in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Example

Many in the liquor industry argue that the ban on television liquor advertising gives those in the beer and wine industry an unfair advantage ("Liquor Advertising," 2002).

References

Liquor advertising on TV. (2002, January 18). In Issues & Controversies. Retrieved from http://www.fofweb.com/

APA Manual 6.15 (p. 176)

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Citing part of a work (page and paragraph numbers)


Page numbers

When you quote or paraphrase a specific part of a print or online source give the relevant page, chapter, figure, table or equation in parentheses at the end of the sentence after the author's last name and publication date.

Example

"Time management is an important survival skill" (Brown, 2003, p. 6).

References

Brown, D. C. (2003). No time for time management? Behavioral agencies have several options for improving staff efficiency. Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow, 12(6), 27-30.

Paragraph numbers

In an online source that does not provide page numbers, give the paragraph number, preceded by the ? symbol or the abbreviation para. after the author's last name and publication date.

Examples

The water level in the Great Lakes has gone down in recent years (Assel, 2004, para. 5).

References

Assel, R. A. (2004). Hydroclimatic factors of the recent record drop in Laurentian Great Lakes water levels. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 85, 1143-1151.

APA Manual 6.19 and 6.05 (p. 179 and 171-172)

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Personal communications (interview, letter, email)


References to personal communications do not appear in the reference list. Personal communication references in text should provide the initials and last name of the person and the exact date of the communication.

Examples

J. J. McKenzie (personal communication, August 30, 2002) confirmed that he was one of the unofficial organizers of the teachers' strike.

He confirmed that he was one of the unofficial organizers of the teachers' strike (J. J. McKenzie, personal communication, August 30, 2002).

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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Secondary sources


Whenever possible, use original source material, not secondary. If you must use an indirect source, include the primary source in the paper and the secondary source in the reference list. For example, if you read about Fruzetti's work in an article by Martens, include Fruzetti in the in-text citation and Martens in your reference list.

Example

Fruzetti explained that no effective treatments for borderline patients had been established until the past decade (as cited in Martens, 2005)

References

Martens, W.H. (2005). Therapy on the borderline: Effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 8(4) 5-13.

APA Manual 6.17 (p. 178)

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Used with permission: Lansing Community College Library

APA Print and Media Sources >>

Examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, and assistance provided by APA editorial staff. When available, APA rule numbers are referenced.


Books



Periodicals



Media Sources



Legal Documents



Tables & Figures



Books


Book with one author


Example

Chang, J. (1991). Wild swans: Three daughters of China (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Book with an editor or translator (anthology, compilation, bibliography)


Example

Mariani, P. (Ed.). (1991). Critical fictions: The politics of imaginative writing. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.

Parts of citation

Name of editor. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title. City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Book with multiple authors


Book with two authors

Example

Stuart, C., & Stuart, T. (1996). Africa's vanishing wildlife. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Parts of citation

Author's last name, A. A. & Author's last name, B. B. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

Book with three authors

Example

Oliver, O. S., Chiras, D. D., & Reganold, J. P. (1998). Natural resource conservation (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon & Schuster.

Parts of citation

Author's last name, A. A., Author's last name, B. B., & Author's last name, C. C. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

Book with more than seven authors

List the first six authors, then use an ellipsis (...) and the last author listed.

Parts of citation

Author's last name, A.A., Author's last name, B. B., Author's last name, C. C., Author's last name, D. D., Author's last name, E. E., Author's last name, F. F., ... Author's last name, G. G. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.01 and 7.02 (pp. 198, 202)

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Book with no author or editor


Alphabetize sources with no author or editor by the first significant word in title.

Example

The American heritage dictionary of the English language (3rd ed.). (1992). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Parts of citation

Title (Edition). (Year of publication). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 203)

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Article or chapter in an edited book


Example

Ross, M. (1997). The death penalty is too expensive. In P. A. Winters (Ed.), The death penalty: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 134-138). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.

Parts of citation

Name of author of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor (Ed.), Title of book (page range of article). City of book publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Dictionary entry or encyclopedia article


Entry or article with author

Example

Ford-Martin, P. A. (1999). Depressive disorders. In The Gale encyclopedia of medicine (Vol. 2, pp. 924-928). Detroit, MI: Gale.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Name of encyclopedia. (Edition number, Volume number, page range). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

Entry or article with no author

Example

Puma. (1997). In New encyclopedia Britannica (15th ed., Vol. 9, p. 796). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Parts of citation

Title of entry. (Year of publication). In Name of encyclopedia. (Edition number, Volume number, page range). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 203)

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Image in a book


Example

Smith, A. (1838-1849). Barn owl [Drawing]. In H. Aramata, Birds of the world (p. 136). New York, NT: Crown Publishers.

Parts of citation

Author of image. (Year of publication). Title or description of image [Type of image]. In Name of editor (Ed.), Title of book (page of image). City of book publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Periodicals


Journal article


Journal with continuous pagination

The page numbers in one issue begin where the previous issue left off, so you do not need to include the issue number.

Examples

Dierker, L. C., Avenevoli, S., Stolar, M., & Merikangas, K. R. (2002). Smoking and depression: An examination of mechanisms of comorbidity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 947-954. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00026-4

Smith, M. (1999). To speak of trees: Social constructivism, environmental values, and the future of deep ecology. Environmental Ethics, 21, 359-376.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:xxxx (if available)

Journal with non-continuous pagination

Each issue begins on page 1, so you must include both volume and issue number.

Example

Frank, T. H. (1995). The interpretation of limits: Doctors and novelists in the fiction of Philip Roth. Journal of Popular Culture, 8(4), 67-80. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1995.676844.x

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxx (if available)

APA Manual 7.01 (pp. 198-199)

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Newspaper article


Example

Goldberg, C. (2000, February 26). Big gap in screening U.S. infants for hereditary ills. The New York Times, p. A1.

Meyerson, H. (2002, May 11). Early outs will cut DNR to the bone. The Grand Rapids Press, pp. D1, D5.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #10 (pp. 200)

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Magazine article


Examples

Bardach, J. (1988, March). Aquaculture: Moving from craft to industry. Environment, 30(20), 6-15.

Magnets that move moods: New treatment for depression. (2002, June 24). Newsweek, 139(25), 57.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number), page range.

APA Manual 7.01 (p.200)

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Article with no author


Alphabetize sources with no author or editor by the first significant word in the title.

Example

Ivory Crackdown. (2004, March 27). New Scientist, 181(2440), 4.

Parts of citation

Title of article. (Date of publication). Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number), page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #9 (p. 200)

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Media Sources


TV program


TV program or series

Example

Rakieten, E. (Executive Producer). (2006, November 21). The Oprah Winfrey show [Television series]. Chicago, IL: Harpo Productions.

Parts of citation

Name of originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Date of broadcast). Name of television program or series. [Television broadcast or Television series]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

TV series episode

Example

Nawaz, Z. (Writer) & Kennedy, M. (Director). (2007, February). The barrier. [Television series episode]. In S. Flanders (Producer), Little mosque on the prairie. Toronto, Canada: CBC.

Parts of citation

Name of writer (Writer) & Name of director (Director). (Date of broadcast). Title of episode. [Television series episode]. In Name of producer (Producer), Name of television series. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210)

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Radio program


Example

Smiley, T. (Host). (2004, July 1). Tavis Smiley. [Radio broadcast]. East Lansing, MI: WKAR.

Parts of citation

Name of originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Date of broadcast). Name of radio program. [Radio broadcast]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 209)

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Interview on TV or radio program


President George W. Bush was interviewed in the episode of Newshour with Jim Lehrer listed below. However, you do not need to mention the interview in your citation, just cite the episode. Then, in the text of your paper, you can mention that the interview occurred during this episode.

Example

Lehrer, J. (Host). (2007, January 16). Newshour with Jim Lehrer. [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: PBS.

Parts of citation

Name of originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Date of broadcast). Name of television program or series. [Television broadcast or Television series]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 210)

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Interview


In-person, telephone, and email interviews which have not been archived are not considered recoverable data and therefore are not included in a references list. However, you will want to include relevant information in your in-text reference.

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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DVD, motion picture or video recording


Example

Arledge, B. (Writer/Producer). (1999). Surviving aids [Videotape]. South Burlington, VT: WGBH Boston Video.

Parts of citation

Name or originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Year of release). Title of work [Motion picture, DVD, or Videotape]. Country of origin: Name of studio

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 209)

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Compact disc


CD sound recording

Example

Gilliam, J. (Author/Speaker). (2000). How to handle difficult people [CD]. Carol Stream, IL: Oasis Audio.

Parts of citation

Name of originators or primary contributors. (Function of originators or primary contributors). (Year of release). Title of recording [CD]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

CD no sound - non periodical

Example

Choices [Compact disc]. (2006). Oroville, WA: Bridges Transitions.

Parts of citation

Title of CD [Compact disc]. (Year of publication). City of publication, State: Name of CD publisher.

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210)

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Audiocassette


Example

Christie, J. (Speaker). (1996). Sense and sensibility. [Cassette recording]. New York, NY: Penguin Audiobooks.

Parts of citation

Name of originators or primary contributors. (Function of originators or primary contributors). (Year of release.) Title of recording. [Cassette recording]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210)

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Video game


Do not italicize software titles.

Example

Pokemon Mystery Dungeon: Blue Rescue Team. (2006). [PlayStation software]. Redmond, WA: Nintendo of America.

Parts of citation

Author of game. Title of game. (Year of release.) [Medium]. City where publisher is located, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 210)

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Legal Documents


Michigan law (Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated)


Example

Safe Drinking Water Act. Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. 325.1007 (West 1999).

Parts of citation

Title of the act. MCLA abbreviated title. Section number. (Publisher year).

APA Manual Appendix A7.04#11 (p. 220); The Bluebook Rule 12.3.1; Table 1 (p. 215)

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Michigan Supreme Court case


Example

People v. Davis, 472 Mich. 156 (2005).

Parts of citation

First party v. Second party, Volume number Michigan Reports abbreviated title First page of case (year case decided).

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 #1 (p. 217); The Bluebook Rule 10; Table 1 (p. 215)

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Michigan Court of Appeals case


Example

Tuggle v. Department of State Police, 269 Mich App 657 (2005).

Parts of citation

First party v. Second party, Volume number Michigan Appeals Reports abbreviation First page of case (year case decided).

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 #7(p. 219); The Bluebook Rule 10; Table 1 (p. 215)

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Federal law (original version, as passed)


Example

Fair Credit and Charge Card Disclosure Act of 1988. Pub. L. 100-583. 3 Nov. 1988. Stat. 102.2960.

Parts of citation

Title of the law. Public law number. Date enacted. Statutes at Large cataloging number.

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 (p. 220); The Bluebook Rule 12.3.1

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Federal Court case


Example

United States Department of Defense v. Federal Labor Relations Authority. No 92-1223. Supreme Ct. of the US. 23 February 1994.

Parts of citation

Title of case. Number of the case. Name of court that decided the case. Date of decision.

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 #8 (p. 219); The Bluebook Rule 10

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Tables & Figures


In the body of your paper, information that does not appear in textual form must be formatted and labeled as either a table or figure. APA does not allow for the words graph, illustration or chart. If your table or figure is for a course paper with no intention of publication, you do not need to get permission to include it; that is considered fair use – if not, permission is required.

Tables

Place the word Table and the table number above the table, flush left. Place the title of the table (in italics), double spaced, under the table number, flush left in italics. Double- or triple-space before and after the table; be consistent. For more on tables, see APA pages 125-150. Information regarding abbreviations or symbols used in a table, copyright information, and probability must be located in a Note below the table.

Table 4

PVCC Usage Statistics

Variable

Credo Reference

EBSCO PsycArticles

GALE Opposing Viewpoints

Proquest National Newspapers Core

Searches

11522

134737

23516

5406

Retrievals (FT)

6880

1933

20873

183

Note. FT = Full Text

Figures: Place the word Figure and the figure number under the figure, flush left in italics. The title of the figure goes next to the number in sentence case. Avoid use of color in figures; use grayscale shading or cross hatching when necessary. For more on figures, see APA pages 150-167.

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Used with permission: Lansing Community College Library